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  • Writer's picturePratham Dave


Updated: Oct 7, 2022


The Companies Act of 2013 was enacted to encourage businesses, with compliance and transparency as the primary goals. Among the numerous issues addressed in this Companies Act,2013 Related Party Transactions began, and this is a term that has made all organizations nervous about the complexities surrounding it for many years.


A related-party transaction is a deal or arrangement made between two parties who have a prior business relation or a common interest. Companies frequently seek business deals with people or organizations they are familiar or share a common interest. Although related-party transactions are legal in and of themselves, they can lead to conflicts of interest or other illegal situations. These transactions must be disclosed by publicly traded companies.


  • Transactions with a subsidiary, an associate, or a joint venture;

  • Transactions involving Directors, Key Persons, Directors' Relatives, and Key Persons;

  • Transactions among Relatives of the Entity's Owner;



PQ Ltd. has investment and holds 29% of shareholding of AB Ltd. and AB Ltd. holds 52% of shareholding of XY Ltd.


Company AB Ltd. is an Associate company of Company PQ as it has more than 20% of shareholding of Company AB Ltd. Transactions between these companies, i.e., PQ Ltd. and Associate Company, i.e., AB Ltd. to be disclosed in the Financial Statement of the Company. PQ Ltd. and at the time of preparation of consolidated Financial Statements.

All the related parties transactions among PQ Ltd., AB Ltd. and XY Ltd. to be recorded in Financial Statements because of XY Ltd. is a subsidiary company of AB Ltd. and AB Ltd. is an associate company of PQ Ltd.


Company K has 65% of shareholding of Company L. Company K sold the goods of $3 Million to Company L during the financial year.


Company K is a holding Company of Company L as it has more than 51% Shareholding of Company L and Transactions between Holding Company, i.e., J and Subsidiary Company, i.e., L to be disclosed in Financial Statement of Company J and at the time of preparation of consolidated Financial Statement.

In the preceding example, Company A must declare the related party transaction in its financial statements, as well as its type.


  • If family members own a major portion of the entity, the entity may gain from such transactions. For example, a corporation that sells finished items at cost to a linked party may not sell at that cost to another consumer.

  • For a more accurate depiction, it should be declared individually in the Financial Statements.

  • Unrelated parties are not permitted to get into transactions with related parties.


  • If family members do not own a large portion of the entity, the entity may suffer losses as a result of such transactions.

  • Management has the ability to restrict such transactions and may profit from doing so.

  • For better representation, it should be declared separately in financial statements; otherwise, financial accounts will convey an incorrect and misleading impression.

  • These transactions may have a negative impact on an entity's profit and loss statement and financial situation.